Noopept is an acetylproline-containing dipeptide with widely accepted neuroprotective effects and is between 200 and 50,000 times more potent than piracetam as a nootropic agent on a dose-for-dose basis.
Sulbutiamine is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). It is a lipophilic compound that crosses the blood–brain barrier more readily than thiamine and increases the levels of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters in the brain.
L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (α-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.
N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine, or NALT for short, is considered to be a modified formulation of a non-essential amino acid. L-Tyrosine is an amino acid that the body is capable of producing internally, but supplementation is often necessary to optimize cognitive function.
Theanine (or L-theanine a specific form of theanine) is an amino acid analog of the amino acids L-glutamic acid and L-glutamine and is found primarily in black, green, and white teas prepared from Camellia sinensis.