Alpha-GPC

Memory & Cognitive Enhancer

L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (α-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

α-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter. It is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays in various cognition systems within the brain. α-GPC is a precursor to choline and is readily hydrolyzed and absorbed through oral intake to form free choline. α-GPC is able to increase both dopamine and serotonin concentrations in the frontal cortex and cerebellum of rats following ingestion.

Effects on Cognition

Attention

A study on 19 healthy college students showed that a nootropic blend consisting of α-GPC in addition to other compounds (choline bitartrate, phosphatidylserine, vitamins B3, B6, and B12, folic acid, L-tyrosine, anhydrous caffeine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and naringin), resulted in increased reaction time and alertness, as measured by both a self-report questionnaire and reaction time test (measured with Makoto testing device)

Memory

A study in 26 individuals showed that ingestion of a nootropic blend (consisting of α-GPC along with several other compounds), taken daily for 12 weeks, was effective in improving memory (recall, recognition, and short-term memory) at both 2 weeks and 10 weeks into the treatment period.

Scientific Research

  1. Scapicchio, P. L. (2013). Revisiting choline alphoscerate profile: a new, perspective, role in dementia?. International Journal of Neuroscience, 123(7), 444-449.
  2. Parnetti, L., Mignini, F., Tomassoni, D., Traini, E., & Amenta, F. (2007). Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation?. Journal of the neurological sciences, 257(1), 264-269.
  3. Parnetti, L., Amenta, F., & Gallai, V. (2001). Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 122(16), 2041-2055
  4. Moreno, M. D. J. M. (2003). Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical therapeutics, 25(1), 178-193.
  5. Brownawell, A. M., Carmines, E. L., & Montesano, F. (2011). Safety assessment of AGPC as a food ingredient. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49(6), 1303-1315.
  6. Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Gonzalez, A., Beller, N. A., Hoffman, M. W., Olson, M., ... & Jager, R. (2010). The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(1), 1-8.
  7. Richter, Y., Herzog, Y., Eyal, I., & Cohen, T. (2011). Cognitex supplementation in elderly adults with memory complaints: an uncontrolled open label trial. Journal of dietary supplements, 8(2), 158-168.
  8. Canal, N., Franceschi, M., Alberoni, M., Castiglioni, C., De Moliner, P., & Longoni, A. (1991). Effect of L-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine on amnesia caused by scopolamine. International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology, 29(3), 103-107.
  9. Sangiorgi, G. B., Barbagallo, M., Giordano, M., Meli, M., & Panzarasa, R. (1994). alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the Mental Recovery of Cerebral Ischemic Attacks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 717(1), 253-269.
  10. Armah, C. N., Sharp, P., Mellon, F. A., Pariagh, S., Lund, E. K., Dainty, J. R., ... & Fairweather-Tait, S. J. (2008). L-alpha--glycerophosphocholine contributes to meat's enhancement of nonheme iron absorption. The Journal of nutrition, 138(5), 873-877.
  11. Park, J. M., De Castro, K. A., Ahn, H., & Rhee, H. (2010). Facile syntheses of L-alpha-glycerophosphorylcholine. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc, 31, 2689-2691
  12. Hasselmo, M. E. (2006). The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory. Current opinion in neurobiology, 16(6), 710-715.
  13. Tang, Y., Mishkin, M., & Aigner, T. G. (1997). Effects of muscarinic blockade in perirhinal cortex during visual recognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(23), 12667-12669.
  14. Blokland, A., Honig, W., & Raaijmakers, W. G. (1992). Effects of intra-hippocampal scopolamine injections in a repeated spatial acquisition task in the rat. Psychopharmacology, 109(3), 373-376.
  15. Elvander, E., Schott, P. A., Sandin, J., Bjelke, B., Kehr, J., Yoshitake, T., & Ogren, S. O. (2004). Intraseptal muscarinic ligands and galanin: influence on hippocampal acetylcholine and cognition. Neuroscience, 126(3), 541-557.
  16. Rogers, J. L., & Kesner, R. P. (2003). Cholinergic modulation of the hippocampus during encoding and retrieval. Neurobiology of learning and memory, 80(3), 332-342.
alpha-gpc