L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (α-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.
α-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter. It is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine plays in various cognition systems within the brain. α-GPC is a precursor to choline and is readily hydrolyzed and absorbed through oral intake to form free choline. α-GPC is able to increase both dopamine and serotonin concentrations in the frontal cortex and cerebellum of rats following ingestion.
Effects on Cognition
A study on 19 healthy college students showed that a nootropic blend consisting of α-GPC in addition to other compounds (choline bitartrate, phosphatidylserine, vitamins B3, B6, and B12, folic acid, L-tyrosine, anhydrous caffeine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and naringin), resulted in increased reaction time and alertness, as measured by both a self-report questionnaire and reaction time test (measured with Makoto testing device)
A study in 26 individuals showed that ingestion of a nootropic blend (consisting of α-GPC along with several other compounds), taken daily for 12 weeks, was effective in improving memory (recall, recognition, and short-term memory) at both 2 weeks and 10 weeks into the treatment period.
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