Noopept is an acetylproline-containing dipeptide with widely accepted neuroprotective effects and is between 200 and 50,000 times more potent than piracetam as a nootropic agent on a dose-for-dose basis. Noopept produces positive nootropic and cognitive effect in animal models. Currently, noopept tablets are used for treating cognitive deficiency of cerebrovascular and posttraumatic origin.
Effect on Cognition
Noopept has been shown in animal studies to be neuroprotective and to help enhance and restore memory. 1) In studies with the Alzheimer’s disease model, Noopept has restored spatial memory and increased immunoreactivity to amyloid buildup. 2) Noopept has a wide safety margin, and its pharmacokinetics indicate specific bioavailability for the brain.
Noopept produces a nootropic effect at much lower concentrations and can be applied over a wider range of pathological conditions; for example, it also displays anxiolytic effects and is used in anxiety treatment. It has been demonstrated that noopept affects synaptic transmission in central neurons, decreases activity of stress-induced kinases, and increases expression of neutrophines in rat hippocampus; it prevents oxidative damage and apoptosis in normal and Down’s syndrome human cortical neurons as well.
Studies also show Noopept to stimulate the expression of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is the region of the brain responsible for the formation of memories and consolidation of short-term memory to long-term memory. BDNF is a protein that is crucial in determining the quantity of new neurons the brain can create, as well as regulating growth, survival and, differentiation of existing neurons. NGF is a protein that is critical for the survival and maintenance of sympathetic nerve and sensory neurons. Noopept has been shown to raise the levels of NGF and for this among other reasons it has been said that “Noopept holds much promise to prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment.”3)
1. Ostrovskaya RU, Romanova GA, Barskov IV, Shanina EV, Gudasheva TA, Victorov IV, Voronina TA, Seredenin SB (1999). “Memory restoring and neuroprotective effects of the proline-containing dipeptide, GVS-111, in a photochemical stroke model”. Behavioural Pharmacology 10 (5): 549–553.doi:10.1097/00008877-199909000-00013.PMID 10780261
2. Ostrovskaya RU, Gruden MA, Bobkova NA, Sewell RD, Gudasheva TA, Samokhin AN, Seredinin SB, Noppe W, Sherstnev VV, Morozova-Roche LA (2007). “The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer’s disease model”. Journal of Psychopharmacology 21 (6): 611–619.doi:10.1177/0269881106071335. 17092975.
3. ” We showed that the nootropic drug increases expression of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that neurotrophin synthesis in the hippocampus determines cognitive function, particularly in consolidation and delayed memory retrieval. Published data show that neurotrophic factor deficiency in the hippocampus is observed not only in advanced Alzheimer’s disease, but also at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (predisease state). In light of this our findings suggest that Noopept holds much promise to prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, therapeutic effectiveness of Noopept should be evaluated at the initial stage of Alzheimer’s disease.” http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10517-008-0297-x